The Republic of Srpska is extremely rich in natural resources, including in particular the quality and unpolluted agricultural land (especially the possibility of organic food production), then forests, electro-energetic potential.

The total area of agricultural land in the Republic of Srpska is 1,299,000 ha (51.4% of the share in Bosnia and Herzegovina), which accounts for approximately one hectare per capita, which is above the world average (0.24 ha per capita) and European average (0.40 ha per capita).

Clean air, land and water allow favorable conditions for organic food production in the Republic of Srpska. The plains in the south and west of the Sava River provide ideal conditions for growing wheat, corn and vegetables, and industrial plants such as linen and hemp. The land is not contaminated with chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The greatest potential is in the cultivation of livestock and meat processing into meat products, the cultivation of chickens and the production of eggs, as well as the production of fruits and vegetables. 

The Republic of Srpska is also known for its high-quality medicinal herbs, which are used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, wine production, lavender and other aromatic plants.

The total area of forests and forest land of the Republic of Srpska, according to the data of the cartulary of forests and forest land, is 1,282,412 ha, or 51.7% of the total area of the Republic of Srpska. The area of forests in the Republic of Srpska’s property of the total Forest Fund is 77%, while of private forests without forest land  is 22%. Total annual volume growth in forests in the property of the Republic of Srpska is about 5,134,000 m³.

Republic of Srpska has great hidro potentials and great potentials for the use of renewable energy resources, such as  wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy and geo-thermal energy. The wind potential of the Republic of Srpska has 30% higher utility than the EU’s average.

The Republic of Srpska is among the largest exporters of electricity in the region since public enterprises and private plants collect the largest income from the sale of electricity on the free market (stock sale or bilateral treaties). Electroportable capacities and interconnection with the neighbouring states allow the acceptance and transfer of considerably larger forces from the current ones, while the mobile losses are below the European average.